A Photovoltaic power plant is a set of facilities intended for the transformation of solar radiation into electrical energy. A large-scale of photovoltaic systems are used for the supply of electricity to the grid. The solar photovoltaic power plant composes of different components and monitors all control panel equipment from a control room. While the control room receives information from different installed systems which include meteorological tower, inverter, cabinets of direct and alternating current, transformation centre, etc.
Components of a Solar Photovoltaic power plant:
Photovoltaic cells: Photoelectric cells are composed of silicon and are responsible for capturing solar energy and transforming it into electricity with the photovoltaic effect.
Meteorological tower: Different meteorological conditions are analyzed to determine the received and expected solar radiation.
Direct current enclosure: Receives the electric power generated by photovoltaic cells.
Inverter: The component which converts Direct Current to Alternating Current.
Alternating current cabinet: Receives electricity from the inverter which has transformed into alternating current.
Transformation Center: Power adapts to the conditions of intensity and apt voltage apt for transportation.
Transport lines: The lines which allow electric energy to transport to the centres of consumption.
Control room: Operations of all the photovoltaic plant elements are supervised.
How electricity is generated through solar photovoltaic panels:
The grouped set of photovoltaic cells in the photovoltaic panels is the basic element of a solar photovoltaic power plant. The solar cells are responsible for absorbing solar radiation and transforming it into electrical energy. Usually, these photovoltaic cells are composed of silicon which acts as a semiconductor material to facilitate photoelectric effect. Also, these cells generate a continuous stream of electrons which will be transformed into alternating current later. The photovoltaic cells are integrated into each module and then these modules form photovoltaic panels.
The meteorology stands as the fundamental element for a solar photovoltaic power station. The solar radiation which the photovoltaic cells receive will vary depending on the meteorological situation of each moment. A meteorological tower is built in the central which controls and analyzes the different climatological conditions.
Transformation of direct current to alternating current and distribution:
The direct current of the solar panels will be conducted to a cabinet of direct current first. The DC In this cabinet is transformed into an alternating current by means of an inverter. Then again, the current is then transferred to an alternating current cabinet.
The electric power arriving at the alternating current cabinet will be unable to supply the grid. Thus, the current produced will be passed through a transformation centre which adapts the conditions of intensity and tension of the transport lines.
Top 10 Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants in the World:
Tengger Desert Solar park – China
Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park – India
Dotang Solar Power top runner base – China
Longyangxia Dam Solar Park – China
Bhadla Solar Park – India
Kamuthi Solar Power Project – India
Pavagada Solar Park – India
Solar Star (I and II) – US
Topaz Solar Farm -US
Copper Mountain Solar Facility -US